Username: Password:

My Forum Quick Questions X

Sorry this feature is for members only.


SELECT A FORUM BY CLICKING ONE OF THE FORUM ICONS BELOW


Cureality Diet

Cureality Exercise

Bone Health

Heart Health

Thyroid Health

Diabetes / Pre-diabetes

Weight Loss

High Blood Pressure

Atrial Fibrillation

Skin Health

Digestive Health

Autoimmunity
Cureality Proficiency Certifications and Awards X

This forum, including much of its vast wealth of knowledge, thousands of pages of special reports, custom tracking programs, supplement discounts, and many other features are available only to our members.

Becoming a member will allow you to view replies, make posts, and will remove the product advertising from this forum.


Member Forum >> Cureality Diet General Discussion >> CR/WB Supplement Central
 CR/WB Supplement Central
Bob Niland

No Avatar

Join Date: 7/7/2014
Posts Contributed: 6844
Post Likes: 1058
Recommends Recd: 6
Ignores Issued: 0
Certs & Awards: 39   view

Post Likes: 5
 
Posted: 12/31/2015 6:03:29 PM
Edited: 5/21/2017 12:56:26 PM (18)
 
CR/WB Supplement Central

CR/WB Supplement Central

Edition 0.93: 2017-05-21T1255
(DRAFT; item count: 93)

Table of Contents

Introduction
  About : Presumed Diet : Diet Potency : Navigation Tip : On CR Links
General Rationale
  Why are supplements even needed?
Supplement Admonishments
  Dose : Regulation : ConsumerLab.com : On Expirations : “Inactive” Ingredients
Core Supplements
  Iodine : Magnesium : Omega 3 DHA & EPA : Prebiotic Fiber : Probiotics : Vitamin D
Extended Supplements
  CoQ10 : Folate : Iron : Potassium : Sodium : Vitamin B12 : Vitamin K1 : Vitamin K2 : Zinc
Conditional Supplements
  Aloe Vera Gel : L-Arginine : Betaine HCL : Bile Acids : Biotin : Creatine : DHEA : Estrogen : Glutamine : Lutein : Melatonin : Niacin : Progesterone : Red Yeast Rice : Rhodiola : Strontium : Testosterone : Tryptophan : Vinegar (Apple Cider) : Zeaxanthin
Cautionary Supplements
  Aspirin : Calcium : Multi-Vitamins : Omega 6 : Vanadium
Miscellaneous Supplements
  Aged Garlic Extract : Alpha Lipoic Acid : Astaxanthin : Benfotiamine : Berberine : Bitter Melon : Boron : Boswellia : Caffeine : Carnosine : Choline : Chromium : Cinnamon : Citrulline : Chondroitin : Copper : Curcumin : Exogenous Ketones : Ginseng : Glucosamine : Glutathione : Grape Seed Extract : Hyaluronic acid : Lycopene : Lysine : Manganese : Methionine : MSM : Molybdenum : NAC : Nattokinase : Omega 3 ALA : Omega 9 : Pantethine : Pantothenic Acid : Piperine : Pregnenolone : Pycnogenol® : Quercetin : Riboflavin : Resveratrol : Rutin : SAMe : Selenium : Silymarin : Sulfur : Taurine : Thiamine : Vitamin A : Vitamin B6 : Vitamin C : Vitamin E : White Bean Extract
Index

Introduction

This article is intended to be a periodically maintained all-in-one-place directory of Wheat Belly (WB) and Cureality (CR) insight on supplements, a very few medications, as well as touch on other supplements frequently asked about. This article is unsponsored, and is not an official WB/CR document (it began as part of an annual review of my family's supplements, and the narratives may reflect my personal view in many cases). Any mention-of / links-to specific products or brands are informational only, and no endorsement is implied unless specifically stated.

This directory is not authoritative. Its goal is to provide a clue, within the context of the CR/WB approaches, to whether or not you might want to consider adding an item to your regimen, and links to resources to support a decision. It is not a substitute for, and often differs from widely available consensus references on supplements. It won't be a full clone of content in Wheat Belly Total Health (WBTH) or Cureality documents. At each item topic, the heading name is a link to a general reference on that substance.

The present article is primarily concerned with Wheat Belly / Cureality implications, with a focus on general diet, and due to the Track Your Plaque heritage on this site, cardiovascular considerations. The focus may be expected to follow any strategic directions for the site. I'm following Dr. Davis' lead on this, and he has said:
While I love the world of nutritional supplements, I also regard most of them as fluff with relatively trivial effects. I also believe that using supplements like drugs also yields unanticipated effects over time that may not be so desirable. So there is a greater burden of proof required when something foreign to the human adaptive experience is purported to provide some benefit.

Many of the entries here are (placeholder), terse comments, or links to other articles. They will only be locally populated with data and commentary when I become aware of material WB/CR-specific insight for them. CR members are invited to use PM feature to make comments, or comment in any “(CR Forum thread)” link to an existing forum discussion about the item.

This directory presumes general compliance with a WB/CR diet, one that minimizes anti-nutrients and supplies various nutrients and micronutrients that won't be covered here in detail. Certain diets, such as vegetarian (which I address in a separate article), may need attention to things not covered here in depth.

Your diet may well include ample quantities of many suggested micronutrients. It's always worth investigating that contribution, but keep in mind a caveat: the nutritional breakdowns available from various reference sources may be based on legacy analyses, and not representative of modern soil conditions, crop strains, field practices and artificial ripening. Unless you are consuming heirloom organics, reference data may overstate your uptake.

Tip: for terms not in the Table of Contents or the Index, use the find feature of your browser (typically [Ctrl]+[f] on a PC) to locate items of interest.

General Rationale

Q. Why are supplements even needed when following a Cureality or Wheat Belly lifestyle?

A. Because it's not practical to fully emulate a genetically optimized ancestral lifestyle (or even possible at all, in most places, or to those of mixed ancestry), and if we did, we could expect some authentic pre-agricultural outcomes we might prefer to avoid, such as pathological parasites, severe infections, exposure, different deficiencies and probable injuries, perhaps all resulting in generally lower life expectancy.

Even on an optimized diet of carefully selected available modern foods, we still need to contend with:

  • Getting ample DHA&EPA from seafood is now generally a modern sea water pollution exposure risk, and getting it from upland game requires consuming organs, regularly.
  • Getting probiotics the ancestral way (casually cleaned root crops, consuming animal intestines and poor general hygiene) is hazardous.
  • Crops (even organic heirloom) from depleted soils are usually deficient in key minerals.
  • Drinking water is no longer raw stream water, so is likewise mineral-deficient (being filtered), and now also has iffy amendments and treatment residues.
  • Thyroid antagonist compounds are today pervasive, and iodine is depleted (other than in seafood).
  • Few of us live where getting Vitamin D from the sun is practical.
  • We live longer than our hormone systems (including Vitamin D from the sun) are adapted to produce at full capability.

So we supplement.

Supplement Admonishments

On dose: more is rarely better, and could be harmful.

Doses discussed are for adults without contraindicating or acute conditions. Mentioned conditions are not exhaustive lists.

Understand what the nutrient or micronutrient does. Many have a U-shaped effect curve, and are ineffective at too low a dose, and wasteful, unpleasant or frankly toxic at too high a dose. WB/CR recommendations sometimes exceed official AI/EAR/RDA. Satisfy yourself that this is safe and effective. Some WB/CR dosings (such as for iodine) are imprecise, as just how much above RDA to go is unsettled.

The supplement market in the U.S. is largely unregulated, which is both a benefit and a hazard. The FDA usually rouses itself to action on supplements only in egregious cases of contamination, undeclared drugs, or when producers are being either too deceptive (about ingredients or effects) or too honest (about effects). FDA does not routinely test for potency (well, they might, but they rarely tell us about it unless it suits their political agenda).

Private organization ConsumerLab.com (CL) does routinely test supplements for potency, purity, economy and other issues. It's a subscription site, and easily worthwhile for anyone serious about supplements. Just finding out which products provide the most benefit for the money can save you the cost of a subscription. At each topic here, for the benefit of ConsumerLab subscribers, a link is provided to their current test results/advice page for each supplement (or a statement of no test). Detailed CL product advice is not repeated here, as it is updated frequently.
Note: CL's editorial posture is based on consensus medicine. Form your own assessment of whether any particular supplement, or dose thereof, is beneficial.

Another private organization, the International Fish Oil Standards Program, offers free-to-consumers test reports specifically on fish oil. They only test member products, and members control whether their results are published. The parent organization, Nutrasource Diagnostics also operates a similar program for enzyme products.

On expiration dates, seek supplements that claim potency is assured until expiration date (perhaps with a caveat that they must be stored as directed). Skip supplements that claim potency "at time of manufacture" (other than for things indefinitely stable, like minerals). Treat the lack of any statement about potency as if “time of manufacture”. You usually won't be able to see actual expiration dates in on-line views, but you can often see the potency claim.

One thing the FDA, CL and IFOS are not fully up to speed on are “inactive” ingredients that are no such thing, commonly fillers, excipients, binders, sweeteners, colorants, flavoring, preservatives, encapsulation, and “other inert”. You need to watch out for these on your own. When buying on the internet, rely only on resellers who serve images of the entire product package, showing both the full Supplement Facts panel, the Ingredients list and any claims about potency.

Specific ingredients to avoid are:

  • flours, commonly rice (WGA and As hazards) or wheat (routinely insist on a gluten-free claim)
  • calcium, too common in tablets
  • real sugars, simple, complex and most sugar alcohols (e.g. dextrose, maltitol, sorbitol)
  • artificial sweeteners (e.g. acesulfame potassium, aspartame, cyclamates, sucralose)
  • alternative sweeteners other than erythritol, inulin, monk fruit, stevia or xylitol
  • food coloring of any kind (unnecessary and thus suspicious)
  • emulsifiers (e.g. guar, lecithins, polysorbate 80, xantham)
  • adverse inflammatory oils (Omega 6 PUFAs like canola, corn, rapeseed, safflower, soybean, etc., high in linoleic acid)
  • preservatives
  • light metal and silica elements and compounds such as non-native aluminum compounds, silica, talc (magnesium silicate) and titanium dioxide

The above list is prioritized, as you may have to pick your battles. TOC | Index ]

Core Supplements

  Iodine : Magnesium : Omega 3 DHA & EPA : Prebiotic Fiber : Probiotics : Vitamin D

Most people need these unless they are unusually situated or have well-tuned diets, such as a deliberate ancestral diet. These nutrients and micronutrients are needed by anyone, on any diet, and modern diets rarely provide them in sufficient amounts.

Iodine Iodine supplementation might not be necessary for those consuming ample seafood, or foods grown in non-depleted coastal soils, and also avoiding non-native halogens that compete with iodine at the thyroid. Therefore, the majority of moderns need to supplement.
Aliases or Related I, iodide
Roles crucial for proper thyroid function, which has moderate to severe systemic effects in untreated hypothyroid (pandemic) or hyperthyroid (rare)
Preferred Forms kelp, potassium iodide, iodide drops
Cautions and Contraindications It is always worthwhile to get a meaningful thyroid assessment (fT3, fT4, rT3, TA, and sure, TSH) before undertaking optimal iodine supplementation. Absent such testing (which can be hard to get from many MD's), do not exceed RDA without some confidence that there is no concerning pathology present, including but not limited to Grave's Disease, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid generally.
Other Interactions Personal opinion: Minimize your exposure to non-native halogen compounds: bromine, chlorine and fluorine (astatine exposure is pretty unlikely). Non-native means not-naturally-occurring, essentially something your ancestors would never have been exposed to. Humans, of course, require ample chlorine as salt (sodium chloride, NaCl), and are adapted to trace amounts of the other halogens as naturally occuring compounds. What we aren't adapted to are novel compounds, and excess amounts of native Na compounds other than NaCl. Things to avoid might extend to chemicals in municipal drinking water and toothpaste.
Dose/Titer US RDA for non-lactating adults is 150 mcg/day. Dr. Davis suggests 500 to 1000 mcg per day, with further discussion in WBTH about cultures where intake is substantially higher. Make any increase slowly. Note that iodine supplementation alone may be insufficient to rectify many instances of hypothyroid. See WBTH or the Cureality Thyroid Track for advice on how to obtain effective thyroid hormone treatment. Iodine supplementation dose is apt to be substantially different after total thyroidectomy, or if using T3+T4 replacement therapy such as Armour, and is beyond the scope of this directory.
Timing Dr. Davis: “timing of iodine supplementation, whether as potassium iodide drops or kelp tablets, also does not matter.
Product Guidance Kelp capsules tend to be the most economical way to obtain iodine in a shelf-stable form. Look for generous expiration dates. Seek North Atlantic sourcing if you're worried about Fukushima radiation. Nori and other forms of seaweed provide unreliable iodine dosing. Iodide-fortified table salt is also unreliable. Never consume topical (tincture of) iodine, as the dose is many orders of magnitude too high, and is directly toxic. ConsumerLab has not tested iodine supplements, other than very infrequent tests of radio-protective potassium iodide.
References CR: Thyroid Health Track » Improve Thyroid Health
WBB: Thyroid Tune-up: Update
WBTH: (extensive coverage throughout the book)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Magnesium Mg supplementation might not be necessary for people consuming ample local foods in locales where the soils are not depleted of Mg. Therefore, the majority of moderns need to supplement.
Aliases or Related Mg, magnesia
Roles blood sugar control, bone density, cardiovascular health (including blood pressure and minimizing arrhythmias), neuromuscular health (minimizing cramps in particular), gut motility
Preferred Forms Seek magnesium malate, magnesium bicarbonate (aka magnesium water, made with milk of magnesia). The glycinate form might be better tolerated if high doses are desired. The magnesium stearate form found in many tablets is basically for manufacturing convenience and is not well absorbed.
Cautions and Contraindications Impaired kidney function requires monitoring of Mg serum levels.
Other Interactions Do not take with Iron
Dose/Titer Wheat Belly recommends 400 to 500 mg per day. That's the elemental Mg, which corresponds to 2667 to 3333 mg malate. Adult RDA is 400 mg in most locales, with a recommendation of no more than 350 mg at one time.
Timing Split across the day in 2 or 3 doses to avoid undesired motility effects. Some sources suggest biasing dose toward evening to enhance sleep.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested magnesium supplements
A Cureality forum user recommends NutraPure (ReachForLife) “Nature's Life” Mg Malate 1300mg (250ct product on Amazon).
References CR Program Guide: multiple sections (PDF)
CR Tracks » Bone Health » Bone Health Minerals
WBB: Mind Your Minerals
WBTH extensive: see book Index
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
The jury is still out on magnesium-L-threonate, awaiting the results of (hopefully unconfounded) human trials. TOC | Index ]
Omega 3 DHA and EPA DHA & EPA supplementation might not be necessary for people consuming ample seafoods, or wild or small game snout-to-tail. For reference, 3 small cans of sardines per day provides about 3 grams of DHA+EPA per day. Therefore, the majority of moderns need to supplement.
Aliases or Related fish oil, n3, ω3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid
Roles crucial for cardiovascular and neurological health
Preferred Forms High quality fish oil, triglyceride form (preferred) or ethyl ester (may be less well absorbed) in capsules or refrigerated bottled liquid. Vegetarians may source from marine algae. Do not use Krill oil (economic issue). Do not use cod liver oil (excess Vitamin A and mercury exposure issues). Watch out for excess amounts of other micronutrients in combination products. Avoid prescription fish oil unless you have no other way to afford it, and even then, the co-pay may exceed the price of a quality OTC product.
Cautions and Contraindications Dose:
Dose may need to be lowered with certain lipidemias, or raised if dealing with certain ailments, such as Lp(a). Doses below 2 grams (2,000 mg) per day may be below a therapeutic threshold. Taking less is probably a waste of money, but such low doses sure are popular in so-called nutrition studies.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 3,000 to 3,600 mg/day (of DHA+EPA, not just total fish oil) on typical diets, of which at least 1,000 mg is DHA
Timing Split dose across two or more meals, typically morning and evening. Take during or just before meal. Avoid taking on empty stomach.
Product Guidance Endorsements:
Various Ascenta Sea and Nordic Naturals products. Sam's Club Member's Mark Fish Oil (Note: Sam's SKU 21311 also contains 2,000 IU of Vitamin D3), which may not be the ideal amount of D3 if that's your sole source of 3+ grams ω3). ConsumerLab has tested Omega 3 supplements.
References CR Program Guide pages 31, 32 (PDF pages 41, 42)
CR Tracks » Cureality Diet » Diet Principle #3
WBTH: (pages 177-179)
Discussion DHA&EPA supplementation also avoids the growing problems of mercury and microplastic ocean contamination. TOC | Index ]
Prebiotic Fiber Those consuming ample ancestral tubers and non-starchy vegetables might be getting all the prebiotic fiber they need. The majority of moderns, however, need to deliberately attend to this requirement.
Aliases or Related soluble fiber, resistant starch
This is what your gut flora (the probiotics) eat.
Roles Not yet completely tallied, but already include: blood glucose control, blood pressure control, immune system support, intestinal health (including gut wall integrity), lipid control, mood and neurological function generally, SCFA production and sleep optimization
Preferred Forms Typically, a course of quality probiotic is useful when starting a prebiotic regimen. Use multiple prebiotic products, including but not limited to: acacia, green banana (whole, raw), IMO (isomalto-oligosaccharides), GOS (galacto-oligosaccharides), inulin (chicory root), konjac, legumes (see WBB GOS article), plantain (raw), PGX (commercial product), potatos (raw), potato starch (raw), and Prebiotin (commercial product)
Cautions and Contraindications Ramp up dose slowly, and stop if serious gastro-intestinal issues develop. Some pre-existing dysbiosis conditions must be separately addressed before adopting a daily prebiotic routine. Do not cook starches (above 135°F/57°C), as it converts the "resistant" carbohydrates to available carbs. Re-cooling cooked starch may be expect to revert only a fraction of the available carbs (perhaps less than 15%) to the resistant form.
Other Interactions None known.
Dose/Titer Start with 5 grams per day, and gradually increase to approximately 20 grams. Intestinal distress may arise at materially higher doses.
Timing Dr. Davis: “timing does not seem to matter
Product Guidance Do not use raw banana flour or raw plantain flour until further notice (net carbs are too high, apparently due to mechanical heating during processing). ConsumerLab has not tested prebiotic fiber supplements.
References CR Program Guide pages 181-189 (PDF pages 191-199)
CR Tracks » Topic » Bowel Flora
WBB: A blueprint to fertilize the garden called “bowel flora”
WBB: Commercial prebiotic fiber supplements
WBB: Loading up on galacto-oligosaccharides
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Probiotics Those consuming ample amounts of uncooked tubers pulled from uncontaminated ancestral grounds, and not extensively cleaned, might be getting ample SBOs (and are at material risk of pathogens, too). Most moderns aren't doing this, and need to consider deliberate probiotics.

Antibiotics, caesarian birth, omission of breast-feeding, pesticides, casual antibiotics in oral care products, a long list of medications and microbiome antagonists of all sorts have done a number on modern guts, which consequently have distortions of bowel flora not yet even fully understood. A routine course of a quality probiotic is a generally harmless precautionary measure for most moderns.
Aliases or Related live cultures, SBOs (soil-based micro-organisms)
Roles makes the benefits of prebiotics possible
Preferred Forms Enteric capsules with explicit “until expiration” claims of potency. Some products may require continuous refrigeration until consumed. Seek products with a CFU (colony forming units) of 30 to 50 billion or more, including multiple species and strains.
Cautions and Contraindications Candida, C.Diff, SIBO, CCK signalling failure, pancreatic enzyme insufficiency, hypochlorhydria and other acute intestinal conditions require assessment prior to commencing a course of probiotics. If dealing with any of the overgrowths, or a severely depleted gut biome, investigate probiotic enema and your current national approvals for FMT.
Other Interactions antibiotics (not just prescription), residual or genetic pesticides, microbiome-adverse food like substances
Dose/Titer Suggested brands (below) as labelled. Consider double-dosing during and 30 days subsequent to any unavoidable course of antibiotics.
Timing Avoid taking with hot foods or beverages. Take for 6 to 8 weeks. Some sources suggest taking the capsule 20 minutes before the first meal of the day, with cool water, to improve odds of it transiting the upper GI intact.
Product Guidance Suggested brands are:
Garden of Life,
Renew Life and
Sigma-Tau VSL#3.

A forum user recommends Probium brand, who have this 50B CFU product (on Amazon).

Caveats:
Probiotics with “at time of manufacture” potency claims (or no claims) may be completely worthless. Typical room-temperature retail products also have too few CFUs of too few species. Fermented foods and yogurts are likewise usually a source of too few/too few, even when “live cultures” are promised, which it often they are not. ConsumerLab has tested probiotic supplements.
References CR: Tracks » Digestive Health Track » Bowel Flora
WBB: Gastrointestinal Recovery After The Wheat Battle Is Won
WBTH extensive coverage, see book Index
Discussion This is a topic with rapid new developments. Nobody knows yet what an “ideal” microbiome population looks like. The probiotics on the market, with one exception not yet endorsed here, consist entirely of bacteria. The actual gut biome includes not just bacteria, but also eukaryotic parasites, fungi, protozoans, viruses and yeasts…
that we know of. TOC | Index ]
Vitamin D People under age 40 or so, living in lower lattitudes, spending a lot of time in the sun, without much cover or sunscreen probably don't need to supplement Vitamin D (and routinely reach serum levels somewhat in excess of 70 ng/ml). Everyone else typically needs to supplement.
Aliases or Related vitamin D3, cholecalciferol
Roles reduction of inflammation, improved blood sugar control, pancreatic support and reduced insulin resistance, critical for bone health, reduces cancer risk, helps prevent periodontal disease, reduces auto-immune disease risk, and more
Preferred Forms Sunshine; failing that, use the D3 or cholecalciferol form, as liquid gelcap.
Cautions and Contraindications Response is an inverted U-shaped curve. Titers of 100 ng/ml are associated with various adverse effects, including afib.
Other Interactions Vitamin D is synergistic with CoQ10 and Potassium in cardiovascular care.
Dose/Titer The CR/WB target is a 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) blood serum level of 60 to 70 ng/ml. This is above consensus targets, and typically requires supplementation of 4,000 to 8,000 IU daily. Some conditions, such as Crohn's, celiac and other malabsorptions may require quite deliberate attention to dosage, with titer confirmed by periodic testing.
Timing Earlier in the day mimics the effect of ancestral sun exposure. Dosing later may interfere with sleep.
Product Guidance The D2 form is no substitute at all. ConsumerLab has tested Vitamin D supplements.
References CR Program Guide pages 111, 145 (PDF pages 121, 155)
CR: Tracks » Bone Health Track » Bone Health Vitamins
WBTH: extensive coverage throughout book
Discussion Current tanning salons do not provide a safe way to obtain Vitamin D. TOC | Index ]

Extended Supplements

  CoQ10 : Folate : Iron : Potassium : Sodium : Vitamin B12 : Vitamin K1 : Vitamin K2 : Zinc

These optional supplements are for specific conditions or known individual situations or dietary deficiencies. On a CR/WB diet, you have higher odds of getting these from food.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) Although not an "essential" micronutrient (we synthesize it), CoQ10 biosynthesis is often impaired by genetics, statins, beta-blockers, age, and some medical conditions and other medications. Statins can reduce biosynthesis by 40%, which is likely a culprit in muscle aches and weakness when using these agents. CoQ10 is also useful in hypertension.
Aliases or Related ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, ubiquinol
Roles Key component of ATP energy generation. Crucial for heart, liver and kidneys. Plays a role in reducing blood pressure.
Preferred Forms gelcap (not powdered)
Cautions and Contraindications Dosage of any other blood-pressure lowering drugs might need to be adjusted.
Other Interactions CoQ10 is synergistic with Potassium and Vitamin D in cardiovascular care.
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Target titer might be 3.5 µg/ml or higher.
Dose might be 100 mg/day prophylactic; 200 to 400 mg/day for various cardiac conditions.
Timing at each meal
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested CoQ10 and Ubiquinol supplements.
CR users suggest Jarrow Formula Q Absorb 100mg Ubiquinone.
References CR Program Guide page 150 (PDF page 160)
CR: CoEnzyme Q10: The nutritional supplement that may make or break your program (2006, may be outdated)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Folate We cannot synthesize folate, and must obtain it from food sources. Synthetic folic acid fortification is pervasive in flours in various locales, and consequently in processed food-like substances. The folic acid form may be useless or adverse for up to 40% of the population.

Eliminating grains from diet eliminates this questionable exposure to folic acid, but usually does not materially reduce necessary folate intake. Assessing folate intake is a worthwhile exercise.
Aliases or Related Vitamin B9, Folic Acid, Vitamin M, Vitamin Bc (or folacin), pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, and pteroyl-L-glutamate.
Benefits Folate is essential for humans (in both senses of the term). Deficiency results in neural tube defects, diarrhea, anemia, weakness, nerve damage and cognitive impairments.
Preferred Forms For adverse or unknown methylation status, choose 5-methylfolate. Folic acid is more economical if you are compatible.
Cautions and Contraindications Some sources suggest a slow ramp-up of any 5-methylfolate supplementation.
Other Interactions Competes with: Iron, Titer reduced by NSAIDs, TBD: Vitamin B12
Dose/Titer RDA is 400 mcg/day for adults generally, 600 for pregnant females
Timing As supplement, if needed, once or twice per day, away from Iron.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested B vitamin supplements.
References WBB: No folate fortification for the grain-free
MTHFR.net
Discussion Being an MTHFR mutant does not automatically mean you have pathological methylation. TOC | Index ]
Iron Menstruating females, and anyone who is a frequent blood donor, might need to consider an iron supplement. Vegetarians are at some risk of Iron deficiency. Routine iron supplementation is inadvisable without an assessment. The body does not regulate it well, and overdose has serious hazards. Eliminating grains also eliminates their routine inadvisable iron fortification.
Aliases or Related Fe, ferrous-{compounds}
Roles Iron is an element essential in many proteins and enzymes, such as hemoglobin. The main deficiency risk is anemia. Overdose is possible and must be avoided.
Preferred Forms Heme iron from meat might be the best absorbed. If a supplement is indicated, consider Iron Sulfate.
Cautions and Contraindications HFE hereditary haemochromatosis
Other Interactions see Timing
Dose/Titer CR/WB follows RDA, which is different for males and females. Deliberate supplementation is ideally based on a serum level assessment (ferritin) and a CBC (for anemia).
Timing Take at a different time than other minerals, such as magnesium. Take at the same time as Vitamin C (if supplementing that).
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested iron supplements.
References CR Program Guide page 189 (PDF page 190)
WBB: Mind your minerals
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Potassium Just as a low carb diet suggests an increase in sodium consumption, similar attention might be directed at potassium. The fraction of the population obtaining AI of potassium may be under 10%.
Aliases or Related K
Roles This element plays an essential role in multiple crucial processes. It is the main intracellular ion, balanced against sodium at cell membranes. Supplementing potassium often helps with muscle cramps.
Preferred Forms Potassium citrate or potassium bicarbonate are suggested. Potassium iodide might covers two bases, but balancing the potassium and iodine needs attention, Calcium may also be present, and the market for that particular formulation seems to have a lot of pandering to nuclear fallout paranoia. Avoid potassium chloride until further notice.
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions Potassium is synergistic with CoQ10 and Vitamin D in cardiovascular care.

Possibly harmful with: aspirin,
iron?
Dose/Titer AI is typically 4700 mg per day for adults. Maintenance supplementation is typically 200 to 400 mg/day. Excess potassium is removed by the kidneys, so toxicity is rare (but not impossible, particularly if any renal insufficiency is present).
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance Typical potassium tablets are a modest 99 mg dose, and they are largely filler, too often rice flour. ConsumerLab has tested potassium supplements.
References CR Program Guide page 67 (PDF page 77)
WBTH pages 237, 238
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Sodium Low carb diets tend to demand more salt intake. Coupled with the groundless “low salt” mania, you probably need more salt. Consensus medicine quite literally has no idea what they are doing on sodium intake recommendations, so take command of yours.
Aliases or Related Na, salt, sodium chloride
Roles Sodium is an element essential to animal life. Our blood is 0.9% saline, and we possess highly effective controls to keep it in a very narrow range. This includes the sodium channel, a taste response quite specific to sodium.
Preferred Forms Use coarse mined salt (from ancient oceans).

Evaporated unrefined sea salt from modern oceans, even when it's not from China, may be expected to express modern marine pollutants, including micro-plastics (and here). Refined salt from any source omits all the ancestral trace nutrients, and adds both processing residues (such as ferrocyanide, aluminum silicate, ammonium citrate) and anti-caking agents.
Cautions and Contraindications Anyone working on lowering high blood pressure needs to actually monitor BP response to salt intake. Both excess and excessively restricted sodium need to be avoided.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 2,300 to 6,000 mg/day (WBTH p152-153)
Timing Use salt to taste, at any meal. Be sure to hydrate adequately.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any sodium salts.
References CR: High Blood Pressure » (home):
“And even salt restriction is either unnecessary or not that helpful for the majority.”
Discussion
(CR Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Vitamin B12 CR/WB advice is to avoid deficiency, which can be an issue with age, various common conditions, and for vegetarians (as all food sources of absorbable forms of B12 are meat). Common conditions include IBS, hypochlorydria, pernicious anemia.
Aliases or Related cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin (5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin), methylcobalamin
Roles Vitamin B12 is crucial in a large number of biologic processes. Although pernicious anemia is rare these days, neurological impairment (due to B12 deficiency) can set in well before anemia is apparent.
Preferred Forms food if absorption is adequate, otherwise methylcobalamin (unless incompatible with your methylation status)
Cautions and Contraindications The more common cyanocobalamin form might be hazardous for smokers and/or where there is kidney impairment. Check latest medical advice if Leber's disease is present.
Other Interactions Antacids, H2 blockers, metformin and PPIs can reduce B12 absorption.
Dose/Titer Low dose (50 mcg/day) is suggested. 500 to 1000 mcg/day might be necessary for various conditions. Oral form usually suffices (sublingual optional). Injectable is more rarely indicated.
Timing Take at a different time than potassium.
Product Guidance If choosing a B-complex form, watch out for the form of the B9/folate in addition to inactives that's aren't (most isolated B12 products are also contaminated with calcium). ConsumerLab has tested B12 supplements.
References WBB: The vitamin B12-grain connection
WBTH: pages 182 to 184
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Vitamin K1 One of a group of fat-soluble vitamins essential for protein synthesis, and in particular, the strength of bones (apart from density). The RDA (90 mcg F, 120 mcg M) is thought to be too low.
Aliases or Related phylloquinone, phytomenadione; phytonadione, and not to be confused with the stereoisomer k1
Roles Deficiency results in anemia, bruising, bleeding, as well as weak bones.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer Above RDA but less than 5,000 mcg (the upper limit due to diminishing returns, and not toxicity, there being no UL for K1). Assess food sources before supplementing. Excellent sources include kale, spinach, mustard greens, collard greens, beet greens, swiss chard, turnip greens, parsley, broccoli and brussel sprouts.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested Vitamin K supplements.
A CR member sells a K1/Mk-4/MK-7/Astaxanthin product: Koncentrated K (also available on Amazon). For comparison, this product's dose is:
K-1: 5,000 mcg; 5 mg
References CR Program Guide page 64 (PDF page 74)
CR Tracks » Bone Health » Bone Health Vitamins
WBTH: pages 235-237 (Chapter 10)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Vitamin K2 One of a group of fat-soluble vitamins essential for protein synthesis, and bone health. Several subtypes are important (MK-4 and MK-7), can be produced by gut bacteria, but perhaps not in sufficient amounts, MK-7 in particular. The RDA may be too low, and vegetarians are at risk of deficiency. K1 is not an adequate substitute for K2 (from animal meat, eggs and fermented dairy).
Aliases or Related menaquinones, MK-3 through MK-13, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
Roles bone density, bone strength
Preferred Forms MK-4, MK-7
Cautions and Contraindications use of blood thinners
Other Interactions warfarin, coumadin, coumarin, and Vitamin K antagonist drugs generally
Dose/Titer There is no U.S. RDA for “Vitamin K”. There are AIs (Adequate Intake), which are thought to be too low. There is no UL. The amount produced by gut bacteria is both uncertain and will vary considerably between individuals and over time. Benefits in studies have been seen at supplement levels above:
MK-4: 1500 mcg; 1.5 mg
MK-7: 100 mcg; 0.1 mg
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested Vitamin K supplements.
A CR member sells a K1/Mk-4/MK-7/Astaxanthin product: Koncentrated K (also available on Amazon). For comparison, this product's dose is:
MK-4: 25,000 mcg; 25 mg
MK-7: 500 mcg; 0.5 mg
References CR: Tracks » Bone Health » Bone Health Vitamins
WBTH: pages 235-237 (Chapter 10)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Zinc Zinc is an essential trace element, and deficient in about ¼ of the world population.
Aliases or Related Zn
Roles Zinc deficiency results in a very long list of ailments, many severe.
Preferred Forms food, zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, zinc acetate
Cautions and Contraindications Free zinc ion is directly toxic. Excess zinc in any form suppresses copper and iron absorption, and can result in loss of sense of smell (anosmia), perhaps permanently. If you still have any nasal Zicam®, dispose of it.
Other Interactions iron
Dose/Titer RDA plus 10 to 15 mg per day, more if vegetarian, and more if on certain medications. Exceeding RDA requires attention to copper as well.
Timing Do not take with iron.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested zinc supplements. The Jarrow “Zinc Balance” product provides 15 mg Zn and 1 mg Cu.
References CR Program Guide page 189 (PDF page 199)
WBTH: page 173
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
The current Zicam® products are oral and homeopathic, and both not a useful source of zinc, and appear to be loaded with things to avoid. TOC | Index ]

Conditional Supplements

  Aloe Vera Gel : L-Arginine : Betaine HCL : Bile Acids : Biotin : Creatine : DHEA : Estrogen : Glutamine : Lutein : Melatonin : Niacin : Progesterone : Red Yeast Rice : Rhodiola : Strontium : Testosterone : Tryptophan : Vinegar (Apple Cider) : Zeaxanthin

These optional supplements are for specific conditions or known individual dietary deficiencies. On a CR/WB diet, absent the specific conditions, you have higher odds of getting these from food.

Aloe Vera Gel A temporary course of this botanical may be useful in healing intestinal injury.
Aliases or Related (placeholder)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms aloe vera gel extract, and not whole leaf extract, in gel or juice form, containing as little else as possible, and labeled for internal use
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 100 ml, orally, twice per day
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested a variety of aloe products, and found major problems with a substantial percentage of them.
References CR Program Guide page 192 (PDF pages 202)
CR Track » Digestive Health » Bowel Health Extras
WBTH page 201
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
L-arginine This conditionally essential amino acid is crucial for endothelial health. The body can produce it, and we get ample from a CR/WB diet. Those with excess l-arginine blocker, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) may need to supplement. L-arginine is also suggested in the Afib Track.
Aliases or Related arginine, arg, 2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
Roles produces nitric oxide, which enlarges blood vessels, improves insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammatory, anti-plaque
Preferred Forms powder, if you can find it, to manage what is otherwise a high pill count
Cautions and Contraindications Consult physician if there are unresolved gastrointestinal issues or malabsorption. Arg can reactivate certain chronic viral infections.
Other Interactions Possibly harmful: NSAIDs
Dose/Titer 12,000 mg (6,000 mg twice per day)
Reduce by what is supplied by food?
Timing between meals
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested L-arginine supplements.
References CR Program Guide pages 148-149 (PDF 158-159)
CR Tracks » Atrial Fibrillation » Preventing Afib
CR: L-Arginine: An essential amino acid to shrink coronary plaque (2005, outdated?)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Betaine HCL If normal stomach acid secretion does not resume when diet is remediated, one or more supplements may be indicated for confirmed hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria. See also vinegar.
Aliases or Related betaine hydrochloride, glycine betaine, 2-trimethylammonioacetate
(TMG and trimethylglycine are not the same substance)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications A medical evaluation is necessary to establish a lack or acid, rather than an excess, as symptoms can be misleadingly similar.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 500 mg; dosing above 3 grams must be done under medical supervision.
Timing Just prior to each meal.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested digestive enzyme supplements.
References CR Program Guide pages 190,191 (PDF pages 200,201)
CR Tracks » Digestive Health » Bowel Health Extras
WBB: Gastrointestinal Recovery After The Wheat Battle Is Won
WBTH page 203
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Bile Acids (Primary) Inadequate bile acid release may indicate a need for supplementation. A number of situations can give rise to this, from just having been an unlucky wheat eater to gallbladder removal.
Aliases or Related bovine bile, ox bile, typically containing taurocholate and glycocholate
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 100 mg, carefully raised as needed to 500 mg, often varied depending on fat content of meal
Timing just prior to meal
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested bile acid supplements.
References CR Program Guide page 191 (PDF pages 201)
CR Tracks » Digestive Health » Bowel Health Extras
Discussion Secondary bile acids are a function of a health gut microbiome, and are not supplemented per se. TOC | Index ]
Biotin Biotin is normally synthesized in adequate amounts by gut bacteria as well as supplied by foods. There some deficiencies that can arise due to genetics and metabolic disorders. Routine supplementation does not appear to be necessary, perhaps excepting pregnancy, but is often undertaken for nail and hair growth.
Aliases or Related Vitamin B7, Vitamin H, coenzyme R
Roles Biotin is crucial for a number of metabolic processes,and deficiency results in various neurological problems, leading to dermatitis, conjunctivitis and hair loss.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications Raw egg white blocks absorption.
Other Interactions anticonvulsant medications
Dose/Titer Ensure RDA (30 to 35 mcg for adults). Dr. Davis has suggested 2 mg (2000 mcg) per day for hair loss. Doses of 2500 mcg are common in supplements, with therapeutic doses being up to 15,000 mcg. There is no established UL.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested some biotin supplements and B combinations containing biotin.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Creatine CR recommends creatine for muscle growth and injury avoidance, as part of an exercise program. Creatine is an endogenous compound, but does tend to be substantially lower in vegetarians, due to deficiency of the necessary precursor amino acids usually meat-sourced.
Aliases or Related Methylguanidoacetic acid
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms monohydrate
Cautions and Contraindications Caution is advised if liver or kidney disease is present. Be sure to hydrate. Water weight gain may result.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 3 to 5 grams per day. See CR Program Guide for details.
Timing one to two hours before exercise
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested muscle enhancers including those with isolated creatine and combination products.
References CR Program Guide page 53 (PDF page 63)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
DHEA This is an endogenous steroid hormone (we produce it). Supplementation may be useful in both bone health and in reducing lp(a). Don't expect more than a 10-20% reduction in lp(a).
Aliases or Related dihydroepiandrosterone, androstenolone, 3ß-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one, 5-androsten-3ß-ol-17-one, prasterone
Roles Precursor to testosterone and DHT. May have inherent androgenic effects. One of several things suggested for bone health.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications High doses may suppress the body's ability to make DHEA, and may cause liver damage.
Other Interactions Promotes tamoxifen resistance.
Dose/Titer For lp(a), 10 mg/day initially, gradually increased to as much as 50 mg. 50 mg is the maximum dose at which no adverse effects have been reported in trials so far. Higher doses are indicated for certain ailments beyond the scope of this directory. See the CR Program Guide for bone support dose.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested DHEA supplements.
References CR Program Guide page 64 (PDF page 74)
CR Tracks » Heart Health » Advanced Topics
CR: Library: DHEA: What role in your program? (2006; outdated?)
Discussion Consider taking an anti-oxidant supplement such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E and/or selenium when taking DHEA TOC | Index ]
Estrogen This is the primary endogenous female sex hormone, but is also found in males. Deficiencies can arise, particularly with age in females. CR/WB has discussions of estrogen therapy for Lp(a), bone health and as an actor in weight loss.
Aliases or Related 17ß-estradiol, estriol, estrone, plus a number of synthetics and non-steroidal variations
Roles In addition to the major roles in gender factors, estrogen is a player in bone health, weight management and cardiovascular health.
Preferred Forms Demand human bio-identical estrogen (where does this come from?). Avoid animal-sourced and synthetic (xenoestrogens). Plant phytoestrogens are no substitute and may be endocrine disruptors.
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer As human estrogen is a prescription pharmaceutical, dosage needs to be worked out with your physician.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested estrogen products.
References CR Tracks » Bone Health » Bone Health Extras
WBTH: several Index entries
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Glutamine A temporary course of this amino acid may be useful in healing intestinal injury.
Aliases or Related L-glutamine, Gln, (levo)glutamide, 2-Amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
Roles Enterocytes (intestinal cells lining the gut) preferentially metabolize glutamine when available.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications May not be suitable for people strongly reactive to MSG.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 25 to 50 grams per day
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any glutamine products, but does have a reference article about it.
References CR Program Guide page 192 (PDF page 202)
CR Tracks » Digestive Health » Bowel Health Extras
WBTH page 200
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Lutein This carotenoid is essential in that we must get it from diet. Lutein and zeaxanthin are isomers, but not interchangeable. Lutein appears to be plentiful in a number of foods likely to be found in a CR/WB diet, but can also be deficient, due to age, absorption. Supplementation might be indicated, if not precautionary.
Aliases or Related ß,e-carotene-3,3'-diol, food additive E161b
Roles May be protective against AMD (by increasing macular pigmentation) and cataracts, and may help retinitus pigmentosa. Benefits may accrue over years.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications May have no additional benefit if getting a generous amount from diet.
Other Interactions May be synergistic with Vitamin C, Vitamin E, zeaxanthin, and Zinc
Dose/Titer Less than 10 mg day may fall below a therapeutic threshold yet to be nailed down. Supplementing appears to be harmless, although skin will bronze at excessively high intake.
Timing Take with a fatty meal; once a day is fine.
Product Guidance A combination product using the AREDS2 formula might be the most economical. See current ConsumerLab report for suggestions and check for adverse and/or irrelevant extra ingredients.
References (placeholder)
Discussion Whether synthetics are as effective as nasturtium extracts is unclear. TOC | Index ]
Melatonin The is a hormone that might need to be supplemented in cases or circadian or sleep disruption that do not respond to dietary and lifestyle measures.
Aliases or Related N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms foods
Cautions and Contraindications Next-day drowsiness can arise. Vivid dreams are reported (and that is also true when remediating gut flora).
Other Interactions Higher risk of bleeding if on blood thinners. May work along side tryptophan in enhancing sleep.
Dose/Titer Implement lifestyle interventions first, then foods at evening meal, then consider supplements. Start with a very low dose, and work up day by day. Take only when necessary.
Timing Dr. Davis suggests 2-3 hours before bedtime.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested melatonin products.
References CR Tracks » Weight Loss » Stalled Weight Loss
WBTH: pages 298-299 (Chapter 14)
Discussion Steps prior to considering melatonin include:
• A CR/WB diet eliminates most sleep disruptors.
• Attending to gut flora usually enhances sleep.
• Use light therapy on arising.
• Avoid all bright and blue light at night. TOC | Index ]
Niacin This is an essential nutrient that is unlikely to be deficient on a CR/WB diet, but supplemental intake can be useful in certain situations, such as lp(a) that does not respond to other interventions. (Apo E, FH?)
Aliases or Related Vitamin B3, nicotinic acid, pyridine-3-carboxylic acid
Roles energy metabolism, DNA repair, fatty acid synth, hormone synth
Preferred Forms Obtain RDA or more from food. Note that RDA is only ~1.5% of typical high-dose niacin supplementation. Supplement as needed with specified slow-release formulations. Do not use nicotinamide or no-flush niacin (inositol hexaniacinate).
Cautions and Contraindications If using a statin, niacin may provide no extra benefit and may increase stroke risk. Medical consultation and monitoring of liver function is recommended at higher doses.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer The CR Library report (link below) has substantial discussion of dosing and flush avoidance.
Timing at bedtime
Product Guidance Slo-Niacin® (OTC) or Niaspan® (prescription)
ConsumerLab has tested niacin supplements, including Slo-Niacin but not Niaspan.
References CR: Track » Heart Health » Advanced Topics
CR: Niacin: Ins and outs, ups and downs (2006, still current?)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Progesterone Decline in hormone production with age is a fact of life. CR/WB recommends careful replacement therapy for bone and skin health.
Aliases or Related P4, pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms CR suggests selecting a bioidentical preparation and avoiding synthetic near-mimics such as medroxyprogesterone. Weigh considerations of oral vs. topical administration (and the form of topical).
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer In most locales, these are prescription agents, and dose must be worked out with your doctor.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested melatonin supplements.
References WBTH: page 239 (Chapter 10)
CR Program Guide page 63 (PDF page 73)
CR: Tracks » Skin Health
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Red Yeast Rice (RYR) This is a fermented rice colonized by the mold Monascus purpureus, which produces monacolin K, which is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (a statin, specifically identical to Lovastatin). CR historically suggested considering RYR where a statin is indicated but prescription forms are not tolerated.
Aliases or Related monacolin K, red rice koji, akakoji, red fermented rice, red kojic rice, red koji rice, anka, or ang-kak
Roles Monacolin K from RYR has the same effect on lipids as Lovastatin. Whether this is net beneficial, from a long-term perspective, for someone otherwise following a CR/WB lifestyle and using Cureality strategies for CVD, requires some investigation by you, in particular regarding interference with benefits of fish oil.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications Medical supervision is advised. RYR, when it contains a useful dose of monacolin K, may have the same side effects as Lovastatin. Any supplement that reliably contains a consistent dose of monacolin K is considered a drug by the FDA, and is often driven off the market. Consequently, supplement products usually do not list monacolin K content, or make fraudulent statements about it. Beware of added food coloring (which may well be an indication of nil monacolin K content), particularly Sudan Red G, considered genotoxic and carcinogenic in the EU.
Other Interactions May be presumed to have the same conflicts as Lovastatin. Anti-fungals and St. John's wort reduce effectiveness.
Dose/Titer See the Heart Health Track » LDL Particles for current recommendations. Carbohydrate content is likely nil at normal doses. Wheat germ agglutinin and any arsenic hazards may be reduced, but not eliminated.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested RYR supplements, and does list monacolin K content.
References CR: Heart Health Track » LDL Particles
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Rhodiola Rhodiola is suggested as for mitigating the effects of wheat withdrawal in Wheat Belly Total Health, and is an ingredient in the Wheat Wacker Smoothie.
Aliases or Related Rhodiola rosea, Aaron's rod, Arctic root, golden root, king's crown, lignum rhodium, orpin rose, rose root, western roseroot,
Roles Potential anti-depressant and anti-anxiety agent. May act to increase brain serotonin.
Preferred Forms Look for extract or root powder, at least 3% rosavins or at least 1% salidrosides, or both. If available in your market, the standardized SHR-5 meets this criteria.
Cautions and Contraindications This adaptogen might lower blood pressure and/or blood sugar, for those on medications for BP or BG. See the ConsumerLab review for cautions with SSRIs and MAOs.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer WBTH suggests 340 to 680 mg per day
Timing 2 or 3 doses, spaced across the day
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested rhodiola rosea supplements.
References WBTH page 111
CL Rhodiola rosea page
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Strontium CR suggests considering strontium for reversing bone loss when nothing else works.
Aliases or Related Sr
Roles Known to reverse some forms of osteoporosis and reduce fracture risk.
Preferred Forms Strontium ranelate is available via prescription in Europe, but not in the US. Supplement form is allowed in the US, but dose, effectiveness and safety of the citrate and chloride forms are not established.
Cautions and Contraindications Be sure to see this blunt summary by a U.S. maker of strontium supplements. There can be side effects, some severe, some merely very annoying. Consult the Drug Facts. Strontium at the very least confounds later bone density testing.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 2 grams per day might be typical for bone density restoration; 500 mg for maintenance.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any strontium supplements.
References CR Program Guide page 67 (PDF page 77)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Testosterone Decline in hormone production with age is a fact of life. CR/WB suggests (for both men and women) consideration of careful replacement therapy for bone health, low testosterone levels, and lp(a).
Aliases or Related (placeholder)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms First trying the precursor DHEA may be worthwhile, as direct testosterone therapy can have variable results. Bioidentical would then be the preferred form, available as a topical cream, injectable, and subcutaneous pellets.
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer In most locales, these are prescription agents, and dose must be worked out with your doctor.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any testosterone preparations.
References CR: Bone Health Track » Extras
CR: Heart Health Track » Advanced Topics
WBTH: several Index entries
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Tryptophan & 5-HTP A precursor to serotonin and melatonin, this essential amino acid must be obtained from diet. Aging can cause a tryptophan deficit. It's one of several amino acids that must be deliberately attended to on a vegetarian diet (there are safe vegan food sources). Wheat Belly Total Health suggests it, perhaps in combination with melatonin, as a sleep aid.
Aliases or Related Trp, UGG, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, oxitriptan, INN
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms food, credibly pure supplements
Cautions and Contraindications MAOI and SSRI meds, and antidepressants generally
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 25 to 200 mg
Timing at bedtime
Product Guidance It might be worth seeking products that contain Ajinomoto TryptoPure®. ConsumerLab has reported on but not tested tryptophan or 5-HTP supplements, due to the difficulty in testing for contaminants to their satisfaction.
References WBTH: page 299
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Vinegar (Apple Cider) If normal stomach acid secretion does not resume when diet is remediated, one or more supplements may be indicated for confirmed hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria. See also betaine HCL.
Aliases or Related ACV
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms liquid - tablet dosage is uncertain and might be hazardous
Cautions and Contraindications A medical evaluation is necessary to establish a lack or acid, rather than an excess, as symptoms can be misleadingly similar
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 1 to 3 teaspoons
Timing just prior to each meal
Product Guidance Organic non-GMO vinegar is suggested. Raw and unfiltered are optional. Pasteurized may not be necessary, as it doesn't affect the acidity, but does reduce shelf life. ConsumerLab has no data on apple cider vinegar products.
References CR Program Guide page 192 (PDF page 202)
CR Tracks » Digestive Health » Bowel Health Extras
WBB: Gastrointestinal Recovery After The Wheat Battle Is Won
WBTH: page 203
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Zeaxanthin This is an essential carotenoid. Lutein and zeaxanthin are isomers, but not interchangeable. Zeaxanthin is CR recommended for skin health, as well as being essential for vision health.
Aliases or Related ß,ß-carotene-3,3'-diol, food additive E161h
Roles May be protective against AMD (by increasing macular pigmentation) and cataracts, and may help retinitus pigmentosa. Benefits may accrue over years.
Preferred Forms dark green leaf vegetables
Cautions and Contraindications May have no additional benefit if getting a generous amount from diet.
Other Interactions May be synergistic with lutein, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Zinc
Dose/Titer CR does not recommend a specific dose as yet. The AREDS2 formula used 2 mg.
Timing Take with a fatty meal; once a day is fine.
Product Guidance A combination product using the AREDS formula might be the most economical. The Ascenta Skin combination product is mentioned on the CR Skin Health track. The liquid product is probably the more effective choice for the CR daily DHA&EPA target. See current ConsumerLab report for suggestions and check for adverse and/or irrelevant extra ingredients.
References CR Track » Skin Health » Skin Health Basics
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]

Cautionary Supplements

  Aspirin : Calcium : Multi-Vitamins : Omega 6 : Vanadium

These supplements are either actively discouraged, or must be selected and/or used with great care.

Aspirin Routine prophylactic use of aspirin has fallen into disfavor. Anyone routinely taking it, even as baby aspirin, needs to review current information, and in particular all-cause mortality.
Aliases or Related acetylsalicylic acid, asa, willow bark, Salix alba
Other Interactions Possibly harmful: L-arginine, Possibly harmful: potassium citrate, May deplete: Vitamin C, Possibly harmful: Vitamin E
References The CR Program Guide (2014) mentions aspirin as being possibly beneficial in lowering CRP (page 85, PDF page 95), and cautions on it as a bowel disruptor (page 189, PDF page 199)
CR Forum: Remark by Dr. Davis in 2012
Discussion Beyond having nil or negative effect for whatever you might be trying to avoid, aspirin is now recognized as both a microbiome and direct gut wall antagonist (and this may be true for most NSAIDs). TOC | Index ]
Calcium Dr. Davis on WBB (2012): “Obtaining sufficient calcium in the diet is likely not an important factor for bone health. New data, in fact, is suggesting that calcium taken in supplement form increases risk for heart attack by 25-50%, likely because calcium is passive and just goes anywhere, including arteries and heart valves where it does not belong.
Preferred Forms Get your calcium from food. For reference, 3 cans of sardines per day would provide your daily requirement for both Omega 3 and calcium. If there is a known deficiency of Ca, and a supplement has been suggested by a competent physician, use the hydroxyappatite form, and seek a credible claim of low heavy metals (esp. lead).
References CR: Tracks » Bone Health » Bone Health Basics
Discussion As it can be challenging to get ample Ca from diet, expect developments on the topic of Ca supplements. TOC | Index ]
Multi-Vitamins Being formulated for use by everyone, the vast majority of multi-vitamins are consequently optimized for no one in particular, including you. They rarely contain the desired doses of what you want, and taking multiple MVs is at risk of an over-dose of other things. They also commonly contain one or more things you want to avoid entirely, and/or contain elements that compete with each other.
Product Guidance A very few MV products might be worth a look, including LEF's Two-Per-Day. Other combination products may have value, but you'll need to assess them ingredient-by-ingredient.
Discussion If anyone credible ever gets (back) into the business of offering customized MVs, then that might be worth a look. Such a vendor might not, however, be able to build you a product containing elements that are substantially above RDA. TOC | Index ]
Omega 6 These are essential fatty acids, but are dangerously over-represented in modern diet, and should never be supplemented. n6 PUFAs are the principal fatty acids in many so-called vegetable oils, including the novel industrial seed and grain oils that contaminate most processed foods, and are also widely used in restaurant fare. Standard diets typically have an Omega 6:Omega 3 ratio of 16:1. That ratio needs to be closer to 1:1. The n6 linoleic acid form may be the most troubling (not to be confused with n3 linolenic acid).
Aliases or Related ω-6 or n-6 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms Get your n6 from whole foods, such as coconut, eggs, poultry and nuts generally.
Cautions and Contraindications Avoid added canola, corn, cottonseed, palm, peanut, rapeseed, soybean, safflower and sunflower oils (except as whole sunflower seeds). Set intake of foods fried in these to zero.
Product Guidance Avoid anything that promotes itself as high in Omega 6
References (placeholder)
Discussion Linoleic acid is a leading suspect in the basic biology of CVD. TOC | Index ]
Vanadium The Cureality Program Guide cites a study in which FBG was reduced, but does not endorse this trace mineral for that use, particularly in non-diabetics, where it may have no effect at all. Supplementation is not encouraged.
Aliases or Related V, vanadium sulfate
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications Vanadium can easily be toxic at doses conjectured to be therapeutic.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer Typical diets provide RDA.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any vanadium products but does have a reference article on it.
References CR Program Guide page 118 (PDF page 128)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]

Miscellaneous Supplements

  Aged Garlic Extract : Alpha Lipoic Acid : Astaxanthin : Benfotiamine : Berberine : Bitter Melon : Boron : Boswellia : Caffeine : Carnosine : Choline : Chromium : Cinnamon : Citrulline : Chondroitin : Copper : Curcumin : Exogenous Ketones : Ginseng : Glucosamine : Glutathione : Grape Seed Extract : Hyaluronic acid : Lycopene : Lysine : Manganese : Methionine : MSM : Molybdenum : NAC : Nattokinase : Omega 3 ALA : Omega 9 : Pantethine : Pantothenic Acid : Piperine : Pregnenolone : Pycnogenol® : Quercetin : Resveratrol : Riboflavin : Rutin : SAMe : Selenium : Silymarin : Sulfur : Taurine : Thiamine : Vanadium : Vitamin A : Vitamin B6 : Vitamin C : Vitamin E : White Bean Extract

These are supplements frequently asked about, or for which there is incidental mention in CR/WB sources.

Aged Garlic Extract There have been a number of trials suggesting that AGE (not to be confused with Advanced Glycation End products) may reduce atherosclerotic plaque and blood pressure. CR/WB has no published position on AGE supplementation. Dr. Davis made this tentative remark about it in 2015.
Aliases or Related This is not about raw garlic (allium sativum). The aged product contains breakdown and conversion chemicals thought to be the active agents, principally allyl sulfides, such as SAC (S-allyl-L-cysteine).
Roles May reduce platelet aggregation. May also reduce triglycerides, but the incremental effect beyond what a low net carb diet provides is unclear.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications Use caution with other medications and supplements that thin blood or otherwise increase any risk of bleeding.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance Kyolic® brand AGE seems to be preferred by Cureality members using AGE. ConsumerLab has tested garlic supplements including AGEs.
References (placeholder)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
The key question seems to be what incremental benefit AGE might have for people following Cureality or Wheat Belly dietary guidelines. TOC | Index ]
Alpha Lipoic Acid This organosulfur compound is essential for aerobic metabolism and is normally endogenously produced. CR/WB has no published position on Alpha Lipoic Acid supplementation.
Aliases or Related α-lipoic acid, thioctic acid, 6,8-Dithiooctanoic acid, ALA (not to be confused with Omega 3 alpha linoleic acid)
Roles Alpha lipoic acid is thought to be beneficial for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and may improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control. Value for other conditions is to date less certain.
Preferred Forms Mixed isomer or R-isomer.
Cautions and Contraindications Ensure that no thaimine deficiency is present before supplementing alpha lipoic acid. This ALA may also lower thyroid T3 levels and increase TSH. Watch for hypoglycemia if diabetes is present. Skin rash and nausea are possible.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer Therapeutic doses in trials appear to be in the 600 to 1200 mg range daily. Doses as low as 100 mg have had some measurable effect in weight loss, but that was on a reduced calorie standard diet. Typical anti-oxidant doses of 20 to 50 mg per day may be useless.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested Alpha Lipoic Acid supplements.
References (placeholder)>
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Astaxanthin CR/WB has no published position on astaxanthin supplementation. Another carotenoid, it is not considered an essential nutrient. Trials are so far considered inconclusive. Precautionary use appears to have no harmful side effects.
Aliases or Related 3,3'-dihydroxy-ß-carotene-4,4'-dione; ß-Carotene-4,4'-dione, 3,3'-dihydroxy-, food dye E161j and a long list of proprietary names.
Roles Astaxanthin is a strong anti-oxidant. Some CR members are using it prophylactically for AMD.
Preferred Forms Use carefully-selected foods, or oil-based supplement using natural, rather than synthetic astaxanthin, enteric coated. Farmed sea food using it for enhanced coloring is probably using synthetic.
Cautions and Contraindications (none found)
Other Interactions (none found)
Dose/Titer CR members report using doses in the range 5 to 25 mg per day.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance Krill oil is discouraged as a source (an economic issue). ConsumerLab has tested omega supplements containing astaxanthin.
A CR member sells a K1/Mk-4/MK-7/Astaxanthin product: Koncentrated K (also available on Amazon). For comparison, this product's dose is:
Astaxanthin: 2,000 mcg; 2 mg
References (placeholder)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Benfotiamine This synthetic derivative of thiamine may be useful in reversing T2D. It is mentioned in the Cureality Program Guide, but with no further details.
Aliases or Related Milgamma®, rINN, S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any benfotiamine supplements and doesn't yet have a library article on it.
References CR Program Guide page 105 (PDF page 115)
Discussion
(CR Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Berberine If the published science to date is reliable (and there is some question about that), this quaternary ammonium salt might have value in lipidemias, diabetes, arrhythmias, CHV, cancer, and as a general anti-inflammatory. See References below for other links.
Aliases or Related umbellatine, berberis vulgaris
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications As a traditional anti-fungal, and now considered an antibiotic, adverse microbiome effects might be a risk.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any isolated berberine supplements. They do have a library article on barberry, which contains berberine.
References CR Program Guide page 116 (PDF page 126)
Discussion
(CR Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Bitter Melon This fruit has claimed benefits for a variety of ailments, the most prominent of which might be blood sugar control, but evidence is weak and not so far confirmed.
Aliases or Related Momordica charantia, bitter gourd, bitter squash, balsam-pear
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms Whole melon.
Cautions and Contraindications If it works for BG control, use with other agents would require close monitoring of BG. Some side effects are suspected. Taste is extremely bitter.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer See ConsumerLab encyclopedia page.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any bitter melon supplements.
References CR Program Guide page 118 (PDF page 128)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Boron CR/WB has no published position on boron supplementation.
Aliases or Related B, borates, boric acid, borax, borage oil, kernite
Roles Boron has multiple roles in metabolism. In regions with depleted soils, or naturally deficient in B, daily intake can be zero, and this correlates to higher incidence of various ailments, including arthritis and bone density problems generally. This suggests that people need to at least assess their default intake. If less than 5 mg/day, supplementation might be worth considering.
Preferred Forms Note that most deliberate boron supplements are going to provide only 5 mg/unit dose.
Cautions and Contraindications The LD50 is about 6 grams per kg of body weight. For adults, more than 500 mg/day can have unpleasant side effects. It has been argued that the cautions about B raising estrogen levels are overstated due to the specific form of estrogen enhanced.
Other Interactions Assists absorption of Mg and Ca (and Sr, I imagine).
Dose/Titer In locales where the food is not from depleted soils, intake may typically be 3.5 mg/day. Boron advocates suggest that it needs to be 10× or 20× that for optimal benefit.
Timing AM. Later consumption may disturb sleep.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested bone supplements, some of which include boron (although usually well less than 5 mg).
References (placeholder)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
This is a trace element that may be under-appreciated in health (perhaps because commonly studied populations tend to not be seriously deficient). TOC | Index ]
Boswellia Extract of this tree (the resin) is thought to be anti-inflammatory. CR/WB has some discussion of it.
Aliases or Related Frankincense
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer 300 mg two or three times daily
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested few boswellia supplements.
References CR Program Guide page 192 (PDF page 202)
WBTH: page 231
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Caffeine Although it is possible to buy concentrated caffeine, that form probably has no role in a CR/WB lifestyle. Coffee, tea, and other caffeine-bearing foods can have value as a weight loss aid. Other health benefits are suspected. Coffee is an ingredient in many CR/WB recipes.
Aliases or Related 1,3,7-Trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
Roles This CNS stimulant is entirely optional in human diet, but commonly encountered in a variety of foods.
Preferred Forms Rely on food, tea and coffee (organic coffee might be advised; high altitude, shade grown, single-origin, fair-traded, low-mycotoxin is optional :)). Instant coffee is OK. Mind the condiments. Avoid caffeinated pop, even stevia-sweetened.
Cautions and Contraindications Do not rely on coffee for hydration. Caffeine may provoke blood glucose in some individuals. Avoid pure caffeine powder (or capsules) as they present an overdose risk. A tablespoon might be lethal.
Other Interactions Caffeine half-life is extended when using oral birth control.
Dose/Titer 500 to 875 mg per day (about 5 cups of coffee) might be the sweet spot, based on some analyses.
Timing Prior to mid-day, to avoid disrupting sleep. This might be prior to 2:00 PM for most people.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested coffee or pure caffeine supplements, but has tested green coffee bean extract supplements which are sold for their chlorogenic acid (CGA) content and not caffeine per se.
References WBTH: pages 305 & 306
Discussion On the wider topic of coffee, it is worth knowing whether one is a rapid, moderate, or slow coffee metabolizer, and this can be teased out of your 23andme raw DNA data. TOC | Index ]
L-carnitine CR/WB has no published position on carnitine supplementation. This compound is required for proper metabolism (esp. mitochondrial). It is endogenously synthesized, but is commonly deficient in vegetarian diets. It may be useful in age-related conditions.
Aliases or Related Carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, propionyl-L-carnitine, Vitamin BT;
the stereoisomer D-carnitine is biologically inactive and may compete with other forms
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms food
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested acetyl-L-carnitine supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Carnosine CR/WB has no published position on carnosine supplementation. This compound is usually obtained in ample amounts, or synthesized in ample amounts from precursor compounds, on a meat-eating diet. It is materially deficient on a vegetarian diet. Supplementing may be of use for various age-related conditions, and in ASD.
Aliases or Related L-carnosine, beta-alanyl-L-histidine
Roles Poss
Preferred Forms food
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing The rapid rate of carnosine metabolism from blood suggests multiple doses throughout the day; at each meal might suffice.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any carnosine supplements. They do have an encyclopedia article on conjectured benefits..
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Choline CR/WB has no published position on choline supplementation. This is a conditionally essential nutrient that is often deficient in vegetarians. Other uses TBD.
Aliases or Related (placeholder)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested isolated choline supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Chromium May be useful in reversing T2D, particularly in those with impaired glucose tolerance. See the Cureality Program Guide, for a discussion.
Aliases or Related Cr
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms chromium picolinate
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested chromium supplements. Because so little Cr is required (micrograms), examine everything else in the dose carefully.
References CR Program Guide page 116 (PDF page 126)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Cinnamon Use of cinnamon as an occasional condiment doesn't require any particular attention. More extensive use requires some selection care. Cinnamon may be useful in reversing T2D. CR/WB has not taken a position on claims for lipid effects.
Aliases or Related Ceylon cinnamon, Sir Lanka cinnamon, cinnamomum verum, cinnamomum zeylanicum
Roles Studies indicate that cinnamon, in daily doses of 1 to 6 grams, reduces both FBG and PPBG.
Preferred Forms Seek Sri Lankan or Ceylon "true cinnamon". As a precaution, in more than condiment amounts, avoid the more common (and less expensive) Cassia (cinnamomum cassia), Saigon (cinnamomum loureiroi) or Indonesian (cinnamomum burmannii ) cinnamons, due to coumarin.
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer ¼ to 2 teaspoons per day, as whole ground bark - oil at 5% of that (a stick in your Starbucks is going to provide an uncertain dose, plus at last report, it was Cassia)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any cinnamon products, but has a reference article about it.
References CR Program Guide page 116 (PDF page 126)
CR Blog: Gastric emptying: When slower is better
WBTH page 217
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Citrulline CR/WB has no published position on citrulline supplementation. Citrulline is a non-essential (endogenously produced) amino acid, and a precursor to L-arginine. It might be useful in Nitric Oxide production.
Aliases or Related (placeholder)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any isolated citrulline supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Chondroitin CR/WB has no published position on chondroitin supplementation. Often sold in combination with glucosamine, it is thought to reduce inflammation, and reduce inhibition of nitric oxide formation. It is considered a symptomatic drug in Europe for treating osteoarthritis.
Aliases or Related Chondroitin sulfate
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications High doses might be a sulfur risk for people with adverse CBS genetics. Risk of bruising or bleeding if also taking blood thinners. May aggravate eye pressure in glaucoma.
Other Interactions Possibly harmful: aspirin and NSAIDs generally
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested chondroitin in joint health supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Copper Copper is an essential trace element. CR/WB has no published position on copper supplementation. There seems to be general agreement that the blood level of Cu needs to be at 70% of the Zn level. This cannot translate directly to a supplement dose due to the wide disparity in food and environmental sources of both minerals, including your plumbing in the case of copper.
Aliases or Related Cu, cupric-{compounds}
Roles multiple, some still being elucidated
Preferred Forms Food. Supplements as copper gluconate, sulfate, or carbonate are better absorbed than cupric oxide.
Cautions and Contraindications Tolerable Upper Limit is near 10 mg/day (US). Cu intake must be monitored, or even countered, in Wilson's Disease and certain other conditions.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer RDAs vary by authority, sex, age and other factors. Absorption plateau is thought to be 100 µg per kilogram of body weight (that would be 6.2 grams/day for an average 137 pound adult). High Zinc intake (above RDA) depletes copper. Ensure adequate Cu intake in that case.
Timing Take away from Vitamin C and iron (per ConsumerLab).
Product Guidance The Jarrow “Zinc Balance” product provides 15 mg Zn and 1 mg Cu. ConsumerLab has only tested copper supplements as it appears in multivitamins, and some Zn supplements, but did not include the Jarrow product.
References
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Curcumin CR/WB notes the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin (WBTH pages 230-231). This is a spice commonly used in Asian dishes, and others as flavoring or coloring. It is considered anti-inflammatory, and may be a COX-2 inhibitor. It appears to be helpful in ulcerative colitis, and a long list of ailments that might be expected to remiss on a WB/CR diet.
Aliases or Related curcuma longa, turmeric, food color E100
Roles not essential
Preferred Forms Credible supplements or turmeric spice
Cautions and Contraindications This substance might be a microbiome antagonist.
Other Interactions may chelate iron, possibly causing deficiency
Dose/Titer Typical doses appear to range from 30 mg to 8000 mg daily. Bio-availability varies with formulation, and whether piperine is also taken.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance Rely on ConsumerLab current report to avoid contaminated products and products with inaccurate labels.
References WBTH Chapter 10, Curcumin topic
Discussion Curcumin might be worth considering for certain conditions that remain after remediating diet. TOC | Index ]
Exogenous Ketones An exogenous ketone (ExK) is one or more of the three endogenous ketone bodies (see Wiki link in left column), but sourced external to the body, rather than metabolized internally from fatty acids. These substances may have great therapeutic value in certain ailments, and have appeared on the market as weight control supplements (they tend to suppress appetite, among other effects). They are also used by athletes, as they are at least presumed to provide greater EE per O2 consumed. CR/WB has no published position on exogenous ketone supplementation. It's hard to make any sort of ancestral case for these substances.
Aliases or Related BHB, beta-hydroxybutyrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, AcAc, acetoacetic acid
Roles Ketone bodies are endogenously produced on a ketogenic diet (extremely low net carb), during fasting, during high energy expenditure, and are an adverse complication of untreated Type 1 diabetes (ketoacidosis). Ketones are an ATP fuel for human cells, an alternative to glucose. An ExK product is more of an alternative food than a supplement.
Preferred Forms The consumer products presently on the market all rely on BHB. BHB is strongly alkaline, and has a horrible taste natively, so the formulations usually rely on added acids, flavoring and sweeteners (typically stevia and/or inulin). These are powders mixed with water.
Note: “raspberry ketone” and 7-keto DHEA products are not exogenous ketones.
Cautions and Contraindications Courses of ExKs are being investigated for treatment of neurological conditions and cancer. Risks associated with long-term use may not be well understood. The products on the market today also contain moderate if not high amounts of calcium and sodium, due to reliance on BHB salts.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer Based on published serving sizes for current products, dosing appears to be between 10 and 12 grams of BHB salts per serving, and one to three servings per day.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance Three brands have come to my attention: KetoSports (Patrick Arnold's Prototype Nutrition line), Pruvit Keto//OS (an MLM), and ForeverGreen Ketonx (an MLM). All of these products can also be found on Amazon and other resellers. You can expect to spend over US$4.00 per serving. ConsumerLab has not tested any exogenous ketone supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Ginseng Ginseng may be useful in reversing T2D. CR/WB has not taken a position on other health claims.
Aliases or Related panax vietnamensis, panax ginseng, panax quinquefolius, ginsenoside
Roles Studies have shown reduced PPBG
Preferred Forms American ginseng
Cautions and Contraindications Side effects may include bleeding, insomnia. Do not exceed 15 grams per day.
Other Interactions Diabetes medication dosage may need to be reduced. Do not take ginseng if on blood thinners or antidepressants.
Dose/Titer 500 to 1000 mg prior to each meal
Timing one hour before meal
Product Guidance Asian strains may have no BG lowering effect or may even raise it. Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) lacks ginsenoside entirely. ConsumerLab has not tested any ginseng products but has a reference article on it.
References CR Program Guide page 117 (PDF page 127)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Glucosamine CR/WB has no published position on glucosamine supplementation. This is an endogenous compound. Glucosamine is considered a drug in Europe, and used in osteoarthritis. It is often sold in combination with chrondroitin.
Aliases or Related N-acetylglucosamine, Chitosamine
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms TBD: is there any CBS issue with glucosamine sulfate?
Cautions and Contraindications warfarin, shellfish allergy (if the glucosamine is from that source)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested glucosamine in joint health supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Glutathione CR/WB has no published position on glutathione supplementation. This is an endogenous substance (an antioxidant), and may be absorbed poorly if swallowed. Consider NAC, glutamine, methionine and SAMe before supplementing glutathione.
Aliases or Related GSH
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms nutrients that raise glutathione levels, acetylated form of glutathione supplement
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has only tested glutathione indirectly in protein mixes and drinks.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Grape Seed Extract GSE preparations appear to be promoted principally for their OPCs (oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes). There is some evidence for effects in circulatory conditions and diabetes. CR/WB has no published position on grape seed extract supplementation, other than to avoid grape seed oil due to the high fraction of ω6LA.
Aliases or Related See also Pycnogenol
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications GSE is discourage for anyone with grape allergy, and requires some caution if on a blood thinner.
Other Interactions NSAID interaction is mooted, but specific consequences weren't mentioned.
Dose/Titer Studies have used doses in the range 100 to 300 mg daily. No upper limit is established.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has only tested compounded and multi-vitamin products containing GSE.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Hyaluronic Acid This substance (HA) is both pro- and anti-inflammatory, and its role as a supplement was not at all clear when drafting this. CR/WB has no published position on hyaluronic acid supplementation.
Aliases or Related hyaluronan, hyaluronate
Roles HA is an endogenous substance, widely found throughout the body. It's a key player in cartilage and skin repair, among other things.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications HA is not thought to be carcinogenic, but is commonly involved in cancer metastasis.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested isolated hyaluronic acid, but has considered in their tests of joint health supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Lycopene This is not an essential nutrient and is commonly found in food. CR/WB has no published position on lycopene supplementation.
Aliases or Related ψ,ψ-Carotene, food coloring E160d
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications Most lycopene supplements are sourced from tomatoes, which may be an issue for people avoiding nightshades.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested lycopene supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Lysine CR/WB has no published position on lysine supplementation.
Aliases or Related 2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not directly tested any lysine supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Manganese This is an essential trace element. CR/WB has no published position on manganese supplementation.
Aliases or Related Mn
Roles multiple
Preferred Forms food and naturally mineralized water
Cautions and Contraindications There is a tolerable Upper Limit at about 11 mg/day, and various severe toxicity risks above that.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer As there is no known minimum daily intake, supplementation may be unnecessary.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested and manganese supplements, other than as an incidental ingredient in other preparations.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Methionine This is an essential amino acid commonly obtained from diet. CR/WB has no published position on methionine supplementation.
Aliases or Related Alias: L-Methionine
Related: S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested methionine supplements other than as SAMe.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
MSM MSM may reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. CR/WB has no published position on MSM supplementation.
Aliases or Related Methylsulfonylmethane, Methyl Sulfonyl Methane, DMSO2, methyl sulfone, sulfonylbismethane and dimethyl sulfone.
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has covered a few MSM products in their tests of joint health supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Molybdenum This is an essential trace element. CR/WB has no published position on molybdenum supplementation.
Aliases or Related Mo
Roles crucial in several enzymatic activities
Preferred Forms food, and as a trace natural mineral in water
Cautions and Contraindications High levels of Mo intake can interfere with copper.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer Average daily intake appears to be in the 120 to 240 mcg range, but could be substantially lower in geographic regions where soil is naturally deficient (parts of China, for example).
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any molybdenum supplements, other than as an incidental ingredient in other products.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
NAC CR/WB has no published position on NAC supplementation. NAC is a synthetic cysteine, converted in the body to glutathione. It may lower homocysteine levels associated with CVD.
Aliases or Related N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, Acetylcysteine
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications NAC may improve the effectiveness of prescribed nitroglycerin, but also cause headaches. Oral ingestion in any case may result in nausea, vomiting, rash and fever.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested NAC supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Nattokinase This enzyme, formerly extracted from natto, is conjectured to be both a thrombolytic and anti-hypertensive agent, and is being investigated in amyloid-related diseases. Cureality has cautioned on it here (2007) and here (2014). Wheat Belly has no published position. These cautions do not apply to consumption of natto.
Aliases or Related EC 3.4.21.62
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms It is argued that any preparation not protected against stomach acid will be inactivated by it.
Cautions and Contraindications Any effective fibrinolytic (clot-dissolving) agent is potentially dangerous (hemorrhage). Anyone with a soy allergy might need to avoid soy-derived nattokinase.
Other Interactions Consult with your physician if also using any other anti-coagulant, "blood thinner", and perhaps any Vitamin K supplements.
Dose/Titer As use of this agent is discouraged, no dosing suggestions are supplied here.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested nattokinase supplements. Of those that passed, only one was enteric coated.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Omega 3 ALA This form of n3 is commonly provided by plant sources, and does not need to be supplemented. It is also no substitute for the DHA and EPA forms. We convert some ALA to DHA and EPA, but not enough, and this can't be compensated for by taking more ALA. This is an issue for vegetarians.
Aliases or Related α-Linolenic acid (not to be confused with linoleic acid, an Omega 6)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications When you see a product promoting that it provides substantial ”Omega 3”, without specifying what kind, it's usually ALA.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance n/a
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Omega 9 These are non-essential fatty acids. CR/WB has no published position on n9 supplementation.
Aliases or Related ω-9 fatty acids, n-9, including oleic acid and erucic acid
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance Some of the fish oil products tested by ConsumerLab include Omega 9.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Pantethine CR/WB has no published position on pantethine supplementation. It may have use in raising HDL.
Aliases or Related dimeric form of pantothenic acid
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested cholesterol lowering supplements, some of which contain pantethine.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Pantothenic Acid This essential nutrient is widely available from food, and deficiency is rare. Doses above RDA may have lipid-altering effects. CR/WB has no published position on pantothenic acid supplementation.
Aliases or Related Vitamin B5, D-Pantothenic Acid, pantothenol, panthenol
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has only tested pantothenic acid as a component of combination products.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Piperine This is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper (which is also the source of extracts). CR/WB has no published position on piperine supplementation other than to note that it is a bioavailability enhancer.
Aliases or Related Black pepper extract, Piper nigrum, Piperoylpiperidine, Bioperine, 1-[5-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]piperidine
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions Enhances absorption of curcumin.
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested piperine other than as an ingredient in turmeric and circumin supplements.
References WBTH page 231 (Chapter 10)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Pregnenolone This endogenous steroid hormone is the parent of all the other hormones, and is an active neurosteroid itself. It is synthesized from cholesterol. CR/WB has no official position on pregnenolone supplementation.
Aliases or Related P5
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms cream? oral? sublingual?
Cautions and Contraindications As the “mother of all steroids”, serious caution is required in working up a dose. Doses of daughter hormones presumably need to be reduced if taking pregnenolone.
Other Interactions Reduces the effect of benzodiazepine drugs.
Dose/Titer Start with a small dose (2.5 to 5.0 mg per day), and assess effect or DHEA serum level.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any pregnenolone supplements, but does have a reference article on it.
References CR Forum remark by Dr. Davis
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Pycnogenol This proanthocyanidin may have value in reversing T2D. See the Cureality Program Guide for further discussion. It has also been the subject of research into a role in improving endothelial function (see forum discussion linked below).
Aliases or Related pinus pinaster pine bark extract
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications May raise blood pressure if taken with Vitamin C
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any pycnogenol supplements.
References CR Program Guide pages 105, 118 (PDF pages 115, 128)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Quercetin Although this flavanol is promoted for a variety of possible effects, it's ability to lower blood glucose is something you can easily test for yourself. It is conjectured to lower LDL oxidation, with some support from the lit. Benefits in CAD may be ApoE phenotype specific. CR/WB has no published position on quercetin supplementation.
Aliases or Related (placeholder)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms Food: many foods are sources of quercetin, such as onions.
Cautions and Contraindications Benefits may vary considerably with Apo E phenotype. Do not take with antibiotics, or taxol/paciltaxel.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any isolated quercetin supplements, but has tested resveratrol supplements containing it.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Resveratrol CR/WB has no published position on resveratrol supplementation, but does endorse red wine consumption within overall suggested alcohol limits, but note that the amount of resveratrol in a glass of red wine is less than 2 mg and may only be a trace.
Aliases or Related (placeholder)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested resveratrol supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Riboflavin This essential nutrient is broadly available in foods. It has therapeutic uses above RDA for certain conditions. CR/WB has no published position on riboflavin supplementation.
Aliases or Related Vitamin B2
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has only tested riboflavin is a component of other supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Rutin This polyphenol is the flavanol glycoside of quercetin. CR/WB has no published position on rutin supplementation.
Aliases or Related quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, birutan Forte, birutan, eldrin, globularicitrin, phytomelin, rutin trihydrate, rutoside, sophorin and violaquercitrin
Roles Rutin is being investigated as a potent anti-platlet (anti-clotting) agent that might be a safer alternative to aspirin, Plavix® and warfarin/coumadin. Numerous other benefits are claimed for it.
Preferred Forms (placeholder for supplement forms)
Rutin is naturally found in various fruits, such as apple peels, aronia berries, asparagus, cherries, citrus fruits, and tartary buckwheat; and in plant leaves, such as: dandelion, rosemary, rue, sage and tea (black and green).
Cautions and Contraindications Prudence suggests that caution is advised if medications with similar blood chemistry effects are in use. Various internet sources, of uncertain credibility, enumerate various other potential side effects, including headache. Working up gradually to higher doses may or may not mitigate these effects.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer The Harvard trial is using daily doses of 500 and 1000 mg. For context, 500 mg would be provided by 15 grams of rosemary. Most food sources have lower concentrations, and might pose a carbohydrate exposure risk at high doses of rutin.
Timing At least one supplement maker suggests taking rutin away from meals, if taken as a supplement.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has only tested rutin as an incidental component of multi-vitamins and other compounded supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
SAMe This endogenous substance is the key player in the SAM cycle and methylation. Common use as a supplement is for joint pain, inflammation, and also major depression. CR/WB has no published position on SAM supplementation.
Aliases or Related S-Adenosyl methionine, ademethionine
See also: methionine
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms Not found in foods, and supplements are expensive.
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions Levodopa depletes SAMe.
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested SAMe supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Selenium This is an essential trace element in human diet. Deficiency is possible where foods are from deficient soils. Supplementation may have value for some conditions. CR/WB has no published position on selenium supplementation.
Aliases or Related Se
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer Dr. Davis has remarked on the Cureality forum (2009 and 2014) that 200 mcg per day might be an ideal dose. Selenium can be toxic if the UL (400 mcg/day) is exceeded.
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance Because a safe daily dose is so low, pay particular attention to what else is in the dosing unit. ConsumerLab has tested selenium supplements, but at last check, every one of them had one or more troubling other ingredients. Suzy Cohen's selenium (200 mcg) or ThyroScript (150 mcg Se) might be worth a look. CL has never tested any Suzy Cohen products.
References (placeholder)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
(placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Silymarin This is a family of complex botanical compounds, with roots in folk medicine, but which has been studied in several ailments, and is approved for use in Europe. It is derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). CR/WB has no published position on silymarin supplementation, other than a tentative remark regarding blood glucose control in the Cureality Program Guide.
Aliases or Related silibinin, silybummarianum
Roles Silymarin is thought to have medicinal effects in various liver ailments (as well as liver protection from other medications), mushroom poisoning, diabetes, rosacea, cancer prevention, OCD, and possibly lipidemias. The ConsumerLab Encyclopedia page has further information.
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications There are some theoretical concerns on the ConsumerLab product test page linked below.
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer Dose depends on the condition being treated, and the age of the patient. The ConsumerLab test report linked below has a summary.
Timing Due to short half-life, multiple doses per day may be suggested.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has tested milk thistle supplements. In their July 2016 test, a significant fraction of products were Not Approved due to active ingredients being less than 70% of stated potency.
References CR Program Guide page 118 (PDF page 128)
Discussion
(Cureality Forum thread)
Before considering use of silymarin, in several conditions (e.g. diabetes, rosacea, cancer prevention), the question would need to be addressed of: does the benefit (ir real) vanish in a Cureality/Wheat Belly lifestyle? TOC | Index ]
Sulfur CR/WB has no published position on sulfur supplementation.
Aliases or Related (placeholder)
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested any supplements that are primarily sulfur, but has tested various products with sulfur compounds.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Taurine CR/WB has no published position on taurine supplementation. This is an endogenous organic acid crucial for a number of biological functions. It is synthesized by both the pancreas and microbiome. It is considered a conditionally essential amino acid. Supplementation might be beneficial in certain ailments. Vegetarians commonly obtain none from diet and need to consider supplementation.
Aliases or Related tauric acid, 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms Meat, fish and dairy are usually ample sources of exogenous taurine. The amount available from marine plants such as nori is TBD. Taurine is routinely synthesized commercially, and there are high odds that it is sourced from China.
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer There is no RDA for taurine. Cautious advice suggests supplementing in the 100 to 500 mg range per day. Many current supplements are in 1000 mg doses. Realistic portions of some cheeses can exceed that.
Timing As taurine is often promoted as a sleep aid, evening consumption might be indicated, but then it's also a trendy “energy” drink ingredient so individual response may dictate timing.
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has not tested taurine supplements, and did not focus on it in tests of “energy” drinks (which are clearly not the way to get taurine).
References (placeholder)
Discussion Some CR members report relief from PACs and PVCs with taurine supplementation. TOC | Index ]
Thiamine This is an essential nutrient that is widely available in foods. It is used therapeutically in CHV CR/WB has no published position on thiamine supplementation.
Aliases or Related Vitamin B1, thiamin
Roles (placeholder)
Preferred Forms (placeholder)
Cautions and Contraindications (placeholder)
Other Interactions (placeholder)
Dose/Titer (placeholder)
Timing (placeholder)
Product Guidance ConsumerLab has only tested thiamine as an ingredient in various combination supplements.
References (placeholder)
Discussion (placeholder) TOC | Index ]
Vitamin A CR/WB has no published position on Vitamin A supplementation. This family of organic compounds is essential in both senses of the word, anyone on a CR/WB style diet tends to get ample from diet. Value in AMD prevention is uncertain.
Aliases or Related retinol, retinal, retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, retinoic acid, provitamin A carotenoids, and beta-carotene